Open Access & Copyright

Journal of Icon Studies (JIS) is an open-access publication and adheres to the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access. This means that users may “read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts” of its articles. JIS does not charge readers or institutions for access to the journal. All content published in JIS is freely available immediately following publication (there is no embargo period).

Authors’ Rights

Authors retain the copyright of the content they publish with JIS with no restrictions. They allow JIS to distribute and continue to make available the article in perpetuity under the Journal’s preferred license (Creative Commons CC BY International 4.0 license). After publication in JIS, authors are free to republish their material elsewhere providing an acknowledgment that the article or review was first published in JIS is made.


All articles and reviews in JIS are published under Creative Commons CC BY International 4.0 license unless otherwise noted. All images are reproduced with the permission of the rights holders acknowledged in captions, or are reproduced under license, and are expressly excluded from the CC BY license covering the rest of this publication. These images may not be reproduced, copied, transmitted, or manipulated without consent from the owners, who reserve all rights, and outside the terms of any specified license. It is the responsibility of the author to cite the relevant copyright when using images and other digital materials.


Journal of Icons Studies is a digital publication and intended to be experienced online and referenced digitally. PDFs are provided for ease of reading offline. Please do not reference the PDF in academic citations: we recommend the use of DOIs (digital object identifiers) provided within the online article. These unique alphanumeric strings identify content and provide a persistent link to a location on the internet. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it to link permanently to electronic documents. We ask users to identify the use of materials made available through this website and to provide appropriate credit to the author and the publication, so that others may find and use our resources. The publication is made available free of charge at